Become an
Expert in Spirometry

Pulmonaria Group

The group is an ad hoc working group. It is not sponsored by any for-profit or non-profit organization, nor do the members have any ties with companies or official bodies that would prevent them from airing anything but their own views, based on their own scientific work and evidence from the literature.

The group has compiled a non-exhaustive overview of the recent scientific literature on the lower limit of normal (LLN) of FEV1%(F)VC. Care was taken to include data from different ethnic groups, and to include prediction equations for young adults as well as the elderly. This information has been entered into a program that allows any user to compute the LLN of FEV1%(F)VC and inspect the results in graphical form. In order to facilitate an independent check of the data we have added a list of references, and the equations used in the software.

We have taken every precaution to prevent errors from creeping into the texts and the software. However if errors are identified we request that they be brought to our attention, so that they can be remedied. The text and the software are provided for free on an ‘as is’ basis.

Maureen Swanney

Maureen P. Swanney, CRFS, PhD
Scientific Director
Respiratory Physiology Laboratory
Christchurch Hospital
Private Bag 4710
Christchurch. 8001

Dr Martin Miller

Dr Martin R Miller
Consultant Respiratory Physician
Dept. of Medicine
University Hospital Birmingham NHS Trust
Selly Oak Hospital
Birmingham B29 6JD, UK

Gregg Ruppel

Gregg L. Ruppel, MEd, RRT, RPFT
Adjunct Professor, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Occupational Medicine
Director, Pulmonary Function Laboratory
Saint Louis University Hospital
St. Louis, MO, USA

Robert Jensen

Robert L. Jensen, PhD
LDS Hospital
Pulmonary Division, Dept 759
8th Avenue and C Street
Salt Lake City, Utah 84143, USA

Philip Quanjer and Paul Enright

Philip H Quanjer, MD, PhD
Emeritus Professor of Physiology
Leiden University, the Netherlands


Paul L Enright, MD
Research Professor of Medicine
College of Public Health
The University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ, USA

Ole F. Pedersen


Emanuela Falaschetti, BSc (Hons)
UCL Deparment of Epidemiology and Publich Health
University College London

John L. Hankinson
Valdosta, Georgia,

Jan P. Schouten
Department of Epidemiology and Bioinformatics
University Medical Center Groningen
University of Groningen
the Netherlands

Ole F. Pedersen, Associate Professor, MD., DMSc.
Institute of Public Health>
Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine
Building 1260, University of Aarhus,
Vennelyst Blv 6, DK- 8000 Aarhus C


Robert O. Crapo, MD, PhD
LDS Hospital
Pulmonary Division, Dept 759
8th Avenue and C Street
Salt Lake City, Utah 84143, USA

Christine Jenkins
Clinical Professor, Central Clinical School  
Thoracic Physician Concord Hospital
Head, Airways Group, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research


Professor Janet Stocks
Professor of Respiratory Physiology
Portex Anaesthesia, Intensive Therapy and Respiratory Unit,
Institute of Child Health,
30 Guilford Street,
London WC1N 1EH

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